شهر پهلوی


Azeri language

"Azeri" is the name of the language in Azerbaijan and to present before the development of Turkish language, it was spoken. Speaking the language, "Azeri in Azerbaijan, during the first Islamic centuries, and" Iran "as being in the same period of multiple sources, and acknowledge is asserted (Yarshater, 1989, p. 238). Now, instead of all Hmdastanand and indeed there is no serious doubt that before the arrival of Turks, people of Azarbaijan and Zanjan, Iran, like people in other areas, the talks were one of the Iranian languages )Henning, p. 6-315.) 
Although today the language of ancient lands of Azerbaijan and Iran not to "Azeri", but the language of the Altai branch   Which combines elements of Persian and Turkish and Arabic is spoken, but the abundance of documents and works of historical and linguistic evidence, the existence and authenticity language "Azeri" in the region before the spread and dominance language "Turkish" present, emphasized are: 
The oldest source of the language, "Azari" language as one of "Iran" has mentioned, "Ibn Mqf (killed in: 142 AH) said that his book" The List "Ibn Nadim (p. 22) is quoted. According to Ibn Mqf, Azeri language, "Pahlavi" (Alfhlvyh) which is attributed to the stairs (Fhlh), namely land, including Ray and Isfahan and Hamadan and Mahnhavnd and Azerbaijan has been. The same as "Hamza Isfahani (movable in: Ruby Hmvy, c. 3, p. 925) and Kharazmi (p. 112) also have quoted. After him, "Masood" dated early fourth century BC. In his book (p. 8-67) after mentioning the name of Blood (such as: Azerbaijan, Ray, Tabarestan, Gorgan, Herat, Merv, Sistan, Kerman, Fars and Ahvaz ...) which says: "All the Blood, nation King and had only had a single language that had differences in some words ... like Dari and Azari Pahlavi and Persian and other languages. " 
"Abraham Abvashaq Astkhry" Jghrafyngar fourth century BC. In his article (p. 2-191), clearly the language of Azerbaijan "Persian" (Alfarsyh) calls. "Ibn Hvql (late fourth century BC.) Bazgfth the same speech, clearly states that:" the language of Azerbaijan and the Persian Armynyh is more "(p. 97). "Abvbdallh Sacred author late fourth century BC., Land of Iran has divided into eight climate writes:" the language of the eight climate, Iran (Aljmyh) is that except for some door and some complex (Mnghlq) and they are all Persian called "(p. 259). He further added that "Persian Azerbaijan in letters, is similar to Persian Khorasan" (p. 378). 
In the early seventh century BC. "Ruby Hmvy" he writes: "The people of Azerbaijan have language that the" Azeri "(Alazryh) and for others the concept is called" (c 1 / p.)  "Hamdollah Mostofi" dated early eighth century BC. Language about the "Maragheh" he writes: "their language is Mghyr side" (p. 100), and about the language of "Zanjan" says: "tongues right side (= complete) is" (p. 67), and language about the "Gshtasfy" (between Ardabil and provincial Baku) shall declare that: their language is Bazbsth Jylany Pahlavi "(p. 107). 
In the twelfth century BC. "Chalabi parents" about the people of Tabriz Smanyayy traveler writes: "Lord of the teachings of Persian are spoken and about Maragheh says:" Most women are Maragheh Pahlavi language dialogue "(Riahi Khoi, p. 4-33). 
This collection of historical evidence that falls clearly before the people of Azerbaijan to complete development and language dominance in contemporary Turkish Safavid era, one of the Iranian languages, which sometimes "Pahlavi" and sometimes "Azeri" and read the language of Ray and Hamadan and Isfahan were continuous and relative, Mygfthand speak. As you can see, in none of the documents and historical sources of this period, the language of Azerbaijan, "Turkish" is not known. 
Trkzban gradual process to "Azerbaijan" - and besides, Aran, Anatolia - the Seljuk era (fifth century), with the targeted settlements in the State leave wilderness areas, in order to battle the so-called Blood Ghza with disbelief (Armenia, Georgia, Byzantine) was initiated (Zaryab, p. 205; Bosworth, 1366, p. 9-48, 97, 105, 196; Bosworth, 1989, p. 228) And this time, for the first time Turkish Aboriginal Phlvyzban Azerbaijan was heard. Mongol period, which hosts more Tkhtgah Trktbar and Azerbaijan had fabricated and State hosts leave - many in Azerbaijan mogul and owner were Mtvtn Aqtaat many were in the land (Ptrvshfsky, p. 462, 491; Bosworth, 1366, p. 194 ; Bosworth, 1989, p. 229; Yarshater, 1989, p. 239). With direct rule and influence Trkmanan "Aq Qvyvnlv (874-780 AH.) And" Qra Qvyvnlv (908-874 AH.) Azerbaijan, Turkish government backing and need people to contact government operatives Trkzban, spread Turkish gradual withdrawal of Iranian and Azeri language was (Riahi Khoi, p. 33; great Islamic encyclopedia, vol 1, p. 261; Yarshater, 1989, p. 239-240). In the Safavid era, due to the dominance and abundance Tyrhhay Trkzban aficionado and Shiite Safavid dynasty - the Safavid kings them for their support of the East Anatolia and northern Syria, Azerbaijan had attracted - more political and governmental affairs and the Turkish army was done and People were forced to learn Turkish language and, hence, Azeri gradually replaced the rulers gave up the language where the late eleventh century BC., Azeri Turkish in all major cities and most were common (Carnegie, p. 26; Faqih, p. 190-187; Great Islamic Encyclopedia, vol 1, p. 261; Yarshatr, 1354, p. 63). But with a few ten-year occupation of the main part of Azerbaijan to the Turkish Ottoman invaders at the time of Shah Ismail (930-907 BC) and King Thmasb (984-930 BC) was the Safavid Dgrgsht definite Azeri Turkish, was obtained (Riahi Khoi, p. 35-33; Carnegie, p. 26). However, the general language of Azerbaijan Azeri Brnbst depart until today in some areas, yet this language is spoken (in this issue will continue to pay). 
Along with historical evidence that the existence and authenticity language "Azeri" and asserted that implies, the frequency of linguistic works of Azeri and remains available. These works include writing samples (poetry and prose) and oral samples (surviving dialects of Azeri language) is. Identified a number of writing samples and remnants of the Azeri language, this is set (for a complete list of the knowledge of these works see: Great Islamic Encyclopedia, vol 1, p. 1-260): 
1 - Mlmy from "Hammam Tabrizi (714-636 AH.) Persian and Azeri: 
Bdyzm eyes went hachure Mstt available / / Kvam and Azar Betty Kvya heart drunk / / went and I know your Dlam Rvzhy / / to welcome Kyanm hachure Mhrt gonna lose time / / Welcome to a life term water / / Levant Lavd Jmn Dale and Kiyan end / / tail of its kind in love GET / / Kzy cast and kindness over the tibial cast / / to Shqat Gr Hammam John Brayz / / Mvazhsh Kahn Bavanat Bmrt Varst / / worms home and want to be cloudy Bowen / / the smell Khth roof Zhahnam drunk (Faqih, p. 196; Ansafpvr, p. 2-71). 
2 - from the lyrical "Hammam Tabrizi" with the informed: "imaginary companions was a dream to connect / / moonlight night and the season Nobahar" the last bit of the Azeri language is: "Vhar and let dry, and no good partner / / Avy companions May Blackwell Bamh Vharan "(Carnegie, p. 13). 
3 - Dvbytyay from "Jacob Ardebili" the seven climates biography (written in 1002 to 996 BC.) Is quoted: 
"Wii hand Klkvn Kryth Bella / / I get thousands of blood Kryth / / Look in the mirror to the Bowen / / Because the life Vynm Kryth" (Carnegie, p. 13), ie: the hand a Bella! You seem so rosy with the hands (Nightingale) thousands of you blood. Look in the mirror to see her, to see how you will live? (Faqih, p. 195). 
4 - Eleven of the two-bit "Sheikh Safi Ardebili" (ancestor of the Safavid kings) in the book "Al Safa Sfvh" of Ibn Bazzaz (written in 760 BC.) And "Slslh Alnsb Safavids" descendants of the Sheikh Hussein Sheikh Zahid Shah Gilani and contemporary Solomon has been quoted Safavi; including: 
"Sfym Safym Gnjan wish / / to the heart of germ dreg tons Bydvaym / / soul to the universe did not Bavi ra / / From the soil you're companions Cho feet"; "mountain Dlr not see her blond head / / Shqr Vryan saving package that no boron / / Hlmr Garden Sharia remains Zyran / / Rvhr game had to fly, not blond (Kasravi, p. 43 and 46). 
5 - poems from "Mahan discovery" of contemporary Ardebili Bzrgzadgan son of Sheikh Sadr, Sheikh Safi; including: 
"We won the heart of grass Ashth eyes / / Le Dylym eaten our blood / / save blood sucking bottom of each primary / / that we have used Khvrdnr Blood Ban" (Kasravi, p. 57). 
6 - poems from "Maly" Contemporary Ahtmla discovery that has been like: 
"Sad moaning Anvy Andvth adulterer / / so that the bottom scent of pure gold adulterer / / blizzard Prvanya with burn / / Dell hotnsexysam is offline now Svth Svth adulterer" (Kasravi, p. 59). 
7 - a language such Tabrizian "Nz·hhalqlvb" Hamdollah Mostofi (740 AH.): "Tbarz·h (= Tabrizian) If the owner Hosni profanity clothes to come, say" What's unique grape Khlvqy in Svh Andryn "ie grapes Khlvqy (= grape quality) is torn in the basket "(p. 98). 
8 - The three most of the "Sheikh Safi in Sfvhalsfay Ibn Bazzaz: Bmandh work, work all go" (= a house in Abadan, was all the work); "Interview Hryfr Zhath (= speak only say, reached the opponent);" Mrzdan heartbreaking intro to their borders without (Kasravi, p. 7-36; Rezazadeh Malek, P. ten - eleven). 
9 - including a woman mystic named midwife Asbsty infallibility "in about 760-820 BC. Lived in Tabriz, Barzegar addressed to the disrespect he had: "Chkstany Mpsndym" (= a dead suddenly, my Nmypsndy?) (Faqih, p. 194; Carnegie, p. 14; Rezazadeh Malek, P. eleven). 
10 - including an old Hassan Tabrizi Z·htab Qraqvyvnlv addressed to Alexander: "Alexander! Rvdm ship, Rvdt Kshad (= Alexander! Ship my child [God] to kill your child) (Riahi Khoi, p. 31). 
Moreover, samples of poetry and prose surviving Azeri, too many words in the language of ancient dictionaries are kept on. The texts belonging to the Azeri words with phrases like: "In the province Zrbyjan say" or "in the language of Azerbaijan / Azeri say" is quoted. These words, clearly Jmlgy and "Iran" have no Frhngnvysy the words belonging to the Azerbaijani Turkish is not seen and read. Its interesting that Vazhhnamhay called "Culture Jahangiri (eleventh century BC.) Explicitly among the people of Azerbaijan and Turkish language input separation, is written:" Zhkh (= warts): the Turkish "Lvynk" and the language of Tabriz " Skyl "say" (Kia, p. 15). Next, the samples of Azeri words referred: 
CREAM = Chraghlh firefly (Kia, p. 11); decline = finger (same, p. 14); Zyval = Dew (same place); Sudan = Starling (same, p. 16); sur = Loach (same place); shaft = uneven (same, p. 17); sham = shoes (same, p. 18); Ng / tag = palate (the same, 18 and 30); Klahdyvan = fungus (same, p. 21); acanthus = owl (same, p. 3 - 22); Mshkynpr = bat (same, p. 24); attack = ticks (the place); Anyn = spear (same, p. 29); Tyth = pupil (same, p. 31); culture = long (same, p. 39); Kryvh = Aqaba (same place) and Sohrab = Rouge (same, p. 40). 
Another group of Azeri surviving specimens, the effects of verbal language or dialect. Despite the increasing weakening Iranian language of Azerbaijan since the Mongol dominance and influence and sovereignty of Azerbaijan Tyrhhay Trkzban Trkmanan era - Safavi, dialects of this language did not go completely through, but still in different parts of Azerbaijan and its surrounding areas, the dispersed, it is spoken. This dialect from north to south are: 
1 - Kryngan Dyzmar villages east of Ahar city Vrzqan; 2 - cartulary and the rural sector Khvynhrvd Ahar city nomads; 3 - Galin Qyh villages Hrznd Znvz city of Marand; 4 - Anbaran city of Ardabil, Namin; 5 - More Anklet rural sector anymore; 6 - number of villages in Upper Tarom; 7 - Ramand and surrounding villages southwest of Qazvin; 8 - and the efforts of Allhbkhsh Shandrmyn neighborhood in the south, to attempt the former Soviet Union, primarily in northern Azerbaijan Bazbsthand toddle languages (Great Encyclopedia Islamic, c. 1, p. 2-261; Yarshatr, 1354, p. 64; Yarshater, 1989, p. 241). 
Now, among the surviving dialects of Azeri, a dialect of "Hrzny» (Harzani) Let's examine. "Hrzn" or "Hrznd" rural northern city of Marand dialect of its people speak Azeri dialect (see: Carnegie): 
1 - Some examples of dialect words Hrzny: 
Ov = water; Otash = fire; Arzi = wish; Vor = wind; Huya = game; Raz = Garden; Parbe = high; Vohor = snow; Proz = Fall; Parari = low (the Avestan: Pairi); Zora = male; Chohor = forehead; Toye = new; Zami = place, the earth (the Avestan: Zam); Joro = separated; Yet = pairs; Chol = wells; Kosh = eye; Kar = home; Khuyo = God; Hov = sisters; Vun = Blood; Kina = daughter (the Avestan: Knya); Daya = pain; Rost = true; Sor = years; Vede = short; Aharu = hungry; Mert = male; Yan = female; Boror = brother; Yeng = foot. 
2 - Examples of the dialect Msadr Hrzny: 
Ote = say; Vinde = view; Zunusta = knowing (the Avestan:-Zan); Horde = eating; Shere = go; Amare = coming; Oshire = hearing; Sisde = break. 
3 - nominative pronouns in the dialects detached Hrzny: 
Man = I; Te = I; A = he; Ama = us; Shema = you; Avoy = them. 
4 - connected to a personal pronoun in the dialect Hrzny: 
em = - M; er = - d; e = - SB; mun = - Mann; lun = - your; I = - Sean. 
5 - Number: 
I = A; De = two; Here = Tuesday; Cho = four; Pinj = five; Shosh = six; Hoft = seven; Hasht = eight; Nov = No; Doh = ten; Sa \ Soyr = percent; Hazo = thousand 
6 - spending verbs (past tense absolute): 
Man-vin-ma = I saw; Te-vin-la = I saw; A-vin-ja = he saw; Ama-vin-muna = we saw; Shema-vin-luna = You saw; Avoy-vin-juna = they saw 
7 - How many dialects including Hrzny: 
Ashte Numirch Chiya = What is your name? 
Kante Izi = Where are you from? 
Haler Naniya = What is the mode? 

Asserted and emphasized very clear and accurate historical and geographical texts of the Islamic era to the "Iranian" language of the people of Azerbaijan and the existence of such specimens, and numerous works of this language either written or oral species, as well as reveals the native language Original territory to Azerbaijan before the current popularity and dominance of Turkish language during the leave - Safavi, one of the languages, "Iran" with names like the "Azeri" and "side" is disrespecting known. In contrast, there is no source document and the language is Turkish people in Azerbaijan leave ages ago period - refer to the Safavid. Among the choral writers and the Azerbaijanis before this period no effect and not the Turkish people and no sign of trace samples of the language of stone and mud and wood and paper and metal, so it this evening and the region have resulted . 

- Carnegie, Abdolali: Hrzny toddle and two dialects of the ancient language of Azerbaijan, Tabriz, 1333 
- Ansafpvr, GH: "American history and language of Azerbaijan", publisher thought the day, 1377 
- Masoud, Ali bin Hussein: "Altnbyh and Alashraf, correcting Alsavy Abdullah Ismail, Cairo, AH 1357. 
- Mostofi, Hamdollah: "Nz·hhalqlvb, Mohammad Dbyrsyaqy effort, pure Publications, 1336 
- Jurist, Jmalaldyn: "Tvrpatkan and literary movements, stock company Iran Press books 
- Bosworth, K.. L., 1366: "dynastic and political history of Iran," Cambridge History of Iran, Volume V, Collector: vol. L. Boyle, translated by Hassan Anousheh, Amirkabir Publications 
- Bosworth, CE, 1989 "Azerbaijan IV. Islamic History to 1941": Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 3, London & NewYork 
- "Great Islamic Encyclopedia, Kazem Mousavi under Bojnordi, Volume St, 1369 
- Kasravi, A.: "The ancient Azeri or Azerbaijani language, Jar Publishing, 2535 
- Ibn Nadim, Muhammad ibn Ishaq: "browse", translated by Reza modernity, Publishing Ibn Sina, 1346 
- Astkhry, Abvashaq Abraham: "And Almmalk Almsalk, Leiden, 1927 
- Kharazmi, Mohammad bin Ahmad: "Mafatih Allvm, H. Khdyvjm translation, Scientific and Cultural Publications, 1362 
- Sacred, Mohamed Ben Ahmed: "Ahsan Altqasym, Leiden, 1906 
- Ruby Hmvy, Abvbdallh: "Mjm Albldan, Beirut, Darsadr, AH 1374. 
- Khoi Riahi, Mhmdamyn, "considerations about the ancient language of Azerbaijan": political information - economic, No. 182-181 
- Rezazadeh Malek, Rahim: "Azeri dialect, culture of ancient Iran Press Association, 1352 
- Henning, and. B., "The ancient language of Azerbaijan": shadows by hunting, February Srkaraty, drop publishing, 1378 
- Ptrvshfsky, the. C.., "The social situation - the patriarch period of economic": Cambridge History of Iran, Volume V, Collector: vol. L. Boyle, translation Anousheh Hassan, Amir Kabir Publications, 1366 
- Yarshatr, Ehsan, 1354, "Azeri": Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume St, translation and publishing firm 
- Yarshater, E., 1989 "Azerbaijan VII. The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan": Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 3, London & NewYork 
- Ibn Hvql, A.: "Ibn Hvql Svrhalarz or travel, translation and explanation of the slogan Dr. Jafar, Amir Kabir Publications, 1366 
- Kia, honest: "Zrygan; Gahyhayy about Azeri dialect, Tehran, 1354


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